Filter Technologies

The AQUASPACE® Water Treatment Compound consists of a blend of various chemicals, including carbonaceous materials, which are subjected to selective oxidation to produce a highly porous structure.  These materials may be thermally or chemically activated to produce an apparent surface area in excess of 2,000 square meters/gram.

The AQUASPACE Water Treatment Compound is a dense, hard and granular in composition.  Its pore structure has been controlled to include a broad range of pore sizes, with a predominant number of larger pore sizes.  It is highly uniform in quality.  It is back washable which gives it extended life.

As is true with any production process, the quality of the final product is influenced by the starting material.  The regular array of AQUASPACE Water Treatment Compound in the surface of the crystallites is disrupted during the activation process, yielding free valences that are very reactive.  The structure that develops is a function of the carbonization and activation temperatures.   During the spectrographs, these structures have been interpreted as micro crystallites consisting of fused hexagonal rings of carbon atoms.   The diameter of the planes making up the micro crystallite is estimated to be 150 Angstroms and the distance between micro crystallites ranges from 20-500 Angstroms.

The method of preparation influences the formation of interior vacancies in the micro crystallite.  The ringed structures at the edges of the planes are often heterocyclic, resulting from the nature of either the starting material or the preparation process.  Heterocyclic groups would tend to affect both the distance of adjacent planes and the sorptive properties of the carbon.

As a rule, the structure of AQUASPACE Water Treatment Compound is tridisperse, i.e., contains micro pores (10-100 Angstroms with effective radii of 18-20 Angstroms), transitional pores (meso pores, 40-200 Angstroms) and macro pores (500-2,000 Angstroms).  Most of the pore structures of the particles are arranged in the following pattern: the macro pores open directly to the external surface of the particle; transitional pores branch off from macro pores; and micro pores in turn, branch off from the transitional pores.  The specific area of the micro pores usually amounts to 90% of the total surface area.


The wide variety of pore sizes with especially numerous pores means that the AQUASPACE Water Treatment Compound can adsorb both high and low molecular weight materials.  It is, however, particularly suited for adsorbing large amounts of high molecular weight substances.  Its high resistance to abrasion results in minimum losses during back washing and mechanical handling.  The properties of the AQUASPACE Water Treatment Compound make it particularly suited for use in chemical and pharmaceutical water treatment and for drinking water filters.  It can be used in either portable or stationary filters.

AQUASPACE Water Treatment Compound will Remove:

  • Metals
  • Inorganic Compounds
  • Organic Compounds
  • Organic Halides
  • Chlorine
  • Chloramines
  • Trihalomethanes
  • Radon Gas


Molasses Decolorizing Index, Minimum
Iodine Number, Minimum
Abrasion Number, Minimum
Moisture when packed (%), Maximum
Ash (%), Maximum
Particle Size (U.S. Sieve Series)
Oversize (%), Maximum
Undersize (%), Maximum


Characteristic Quantity
Apparent Density (lb/ft3) 26-30
Bed Density, Back Washed and Drained (lb/ft3) 30
Surface Area (Nitrogen BET Method (m2/g) 1100
Particle Density, Wetted in Water (g/cc) 1.4
Effective Size (mm) 0.35-0.45
Uniform Coefficient 1.60
Voids in Packed Bed (%) 40

Raw Water Conditions: For reliable operation of the AQUASPACE Water Treatment Compound, the following are raw water limitations.


Properties Quantity
Chlorides (ppm), Maximum 500
Sulfates (ppm), Maximum 2000
Iron (ppm), Maximum 1 0.2
Manganese (ppm), Maximum 0.02
Color (APHA Units), Maximum 20
Turbidity (Jackson Units), Maximum 5
Temperature (degress F) 40-85
pH 5.0-8.5
Total Dissolved Solids (ppm), Minimum 2 100
  1. 1. Most raw water high in iron content can be pre-treated for its removal before treatment.
  2. 2. Hydrogen Sulfide (If present, its removal is recommended in high concentration)


Under normal operating conditions, AQUASPACE Water Treatment Compound will treat an average of 500,000 gallons of raw water per cubic foot of mineral.  AQUASPACE units should be designed for a flow rate of 3 gallons per minute per cubic foot of AQUASPACE Water Treatment Compound.

A simple backwashing of Point of Entry unit is all that is necessary to keep AQUASPACE Water Treatment Compound functioning properly and maintain its filtration efficiency.  Cartridges are generally not back washable.

The AQUASPACE Water Treatment Compound requires an initial rinse before use to remove excess carbon fines and entrapped air.  This rinse should be proportionate to a bed of 30 pounds media, at a flow rate of 3 gpm for 15 minutes.  Pre-soak media for approximately 20 minutes before rinsing.